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Posts Tagged ‘Terrorism’

All about Oil

At the root of US-Iran rivalry, is the question of who will supply oil and gas to India and China.

Big Oil has the eyes, ears, mind, actions of the world's ruling elite - also in India. (Cartoon by : David Horsey of Seattle Post-Intelligencer; Cartoon courtesy - usj.com. ). Click for larger image.

Big Oil has the eyes, ears, mind, actions of the world’s ruling elite – also in India. (Cartoon by : David Horsey of Seattle Post-Intelligencer; Cartoon courtesy – usj.com. ). Click for larger image.

Big oil

Significant part of global politics in the last 10-15 years has been dictated by three developments. One – Oil reserves in Central Asia and the Caspian Sea. Two – Stagnant oil consumption by the West. Three – Rising oil consumption by India and China. For instance US oil consumption between 1973-2010 has grown from 17 mpd to 19 mpd – with some consumption peaks and demand  collapses.

US-Iran clash

Iran is a rival to Big Oil companies of the US and West, as a supplier of oil and gas to India. Iran can easily and cheaply transport oil from its own oil fields – as well as Central Asian production. Iran can thus completely cut out US and its oil companies from the future of oil business with India and China. Hence, the US-Iran rivalry. The Oil-Dollar Tango on which the US Economy is based for the last 30-40 years, also supports Big Oil.

US would like overland oil from Central Asia to come to India and China through Pakistan and Afghanistan – which are US client states. With this the US can cut out Iran – completely. Pakistan and Afghanistan become key gateways for oil to India and China. Hence, the power struggle in Pakistan between Army, Taliban, and the Pakistani politicians.

China's rising oil imports is supporting high oil prices. (Graphic source and courtesy - bbc.co.uk). Click for larger image.

China’s rising oil imports is supporting high oil prices. (Graphic source and courtesy – bbc.co.uk). Click for larger image.

India-Pakistan story

What will be US role, if India and Pakistan were to sit down and resolve their issues. India-Pakistan troubles in the recent past, must be seen in this light, too.

India is negotiating with a Central Asian-US Big Oil Consortium to bring gas via Afghanistan and Pakistan to India – dubbed as the TAPI pipeline. It is also in discussion with Iran and Pakistan to bring gas from Iran to India via Pakistan – commonly known as IPI pipeline.

India’s choice between IPI-TAPI is crucial – and will take another 5-10 years to resolve. In the meantime, Iran’ has an interesting point of view.

The Iranian diplomat reposed faith in the “rationality” of the Indian leadership (and it) would take the “best decision” to meet the energy needs of (an) economy aspiring to be the world’s second largest. He drew attention to Iranian export options of China and Europe other than India.

“India has to decide how to meet its energy needs. Use of nuclear energy has become questionable after the earthquake in Japan. The demand for fossil energy is bound to increase with long term nuclear power projects on hold in Europe,” sources explained.

Security was a major Indian concern — besides pricing — in the talks on the pipeline that would have been laid across the lawless Balochistan where Islamabad’s writ is non-existent in vast stretches controlled by local tribes.

If (security was a major Indian concern) then how was New Delhi in talks on the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) pipeline, they asked. “The (security) concerns that exist about IPI exist with TAPI in which case the source of (gas) supply is also dubious,” they averred.

Bagheri attributed the spread of terrorism in the region to the presence of Nato and US troops. “Countries like US are at the root of terrorism in the region. They first created the terrorist groups and have come to the region now on the pretext of fighting them,” he said. “Terrorism has increased since their arrival.”

He cited UN figures to claim that narcotics production went up four times and was the maximum in areas under the control of British troops in Afghanistan. (via Iran gives up on India, pursues gas pipeline with Pak – Hindustan Times).

What is New Delhi’s strategy in all this. Partly, it is increasing oil production within India. Secondly, is increasing the share of nuclear energy. Third is imports.

As usual, tough choices ahead.

Oil reserves across the world. (Graphic source and courtesy - indiadaily.org). Click for larger image.

Oil reserves across the world. (Graphic source and courtesy – indiadaily.org). Click for larger image.


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The headache that is Pakistan

May 25, 2011 2 comments

Gunmen in USA have attempted and killed more people and US Presidents than gunmen in Pakistan. American Government has made guns cheap and accessible in – both in USA and Pakistan.

Fatalities in Terrorist Violence in Pakistan - 2003- 2011. Source - South Asia Terrorism Portal; Copyright © 2001 SATP. All rights reserved. Click for a larger image.

Fatalities in Terrorist Violence in Pakistan – 2003- 2011. Source – South Asia Terrorism Portal; Copyright © 2001 SATP. All rights reserved. Click for a larger image.

Why Pakistan gets bad press

After 60 years of Pakistan, India needs to take a fresh look at Pakistan. Maybe, even the world should look again at Pakistan.

To start with, Pakistan has become ‘famous’ for terrorist killings.

Going by numbers

Technically, more Americans are killed by guns in USA than in Pakistan. For instance, USA law-enforcement authorities found that ‘14,000 murders involving firearms were committed in 2005′. Surely, it is no comfort to American gunfire victims that they were not killed by jehadis.

What is it with America and guns? Why does the most advanced democracy, which prides itself on being a bastion of reason and civilisation in a brutal and ugly world, put up with this carnage in its own back yard? Why does it tolerate the sea of blood that flows from gun incidents, with about 100,000 people killed or injured every year? Why does it accept an annual murder rate by guns that is 13 times that of Germany and 44 times that of England and Wales? People tend to remember the low points, such as the assassinations of Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy in 1968. But do they know that since those two men hit the floor, more than a million people have been killed in the US from the barrel of a gun? (via US gun crime: death for sale | World news | The Guardian.

The case of Pakistan is becoming more complex. Unchrted waters, anyone? (Cartoonist - Adam Zyglis; courtesy - http://www.adamzyglis.com). Click for larger image.

The case of Pakistan is becoming more complex. Uncharted waters, anyone? (Cartoonist – Adam Zyglis; courtesy – http://www.adamzyglis.com). Click for larger image.

Uncharted waters, anyone?

There will be protests that the SATP figure of 33,213 of Pakistani casualties, is a case of serious under-estimation and under-reporting.

Assuming that there is data-error, by how much can these numbers be multiplied. By 1000%? Maybe 2000%! Or will 3000% be more satisfactory?

At 3000%, more people are killed in US, with guns, than in Pakistan, as per SATP figures.

Coming to political assassinations, Pakistan is no worse. Gunmen in USA have attempted and killed more US Presidents than gunmen in Pakistan. Look deeply enough, you cannot hold the State of Pakistan (such as it is) responsible for free availability of guns.

One may argue that the Pakistani State anyway cannot be held responsible for most other things that a ‘modern’ State is responsible for. American Government has made guns cheap and accessible in – both in USA and Pakistan.

Not just Pakistan, but the whole world is misreading Pakistan. The problem is deeper and different. (Cartoon by DAVE GRANLUND, POLITICALCARTOONS.COM  -  5/4/2011 12.00.00 AM). Courtesy - caglecartoons.com. Click for larger image.

Not just Pakistan, but the whole world is misreading Pakistan. The problem is deeper and different. (Cartoon by DAVE GRANLUND, POLITICALCARTOONS.COM – 5/4/2011 12.00.00 AM). Courtesy – caglecartoons.com. Click for larger image.

So, why does Pakistan alone get such bad press – and so much name calling.


Indian Govt on hunt for 31 ‘wanted’

February 27, 2011 Leave a comment
Cartoon by Kirtish Bhatt; courtesy - http://bamulahija.wordpress.com

Cartoon by Kirtish Bhatt; courtesy - http://bamulahija.wordpress.com

Centre has shared an updated dossier of 31 most wanted terrorists — including 19 of IM and 12 of the other Lashkar-SIMI front, Jama-i-tul Ansarul Muslimeen (JIAM) — with states, asking them to launch a manhunt for them. Security agencies believe that 10 terrorists may be hiding somewhere in the country.

With a majority of them suspected to be in West Asian countries like the UAE and Qatar on Pakistani passports, India has sought help from these nations in the wake of the Varanasi blast.

“A list, comprising 17 top IM terrorists, including Bhatkal brothers — Riyaz and Iqbal — the outfit’s bombmaker Yasin Bhatkal, financer Mohsin Chaudhary and technical expert Abdus Subhan Usman Qureshi alias Tauqeer, has also been with Pakistan for over nine months,” said a senior home ministry official. New Delhi had shared these details with Islamabad during foreign secretary-level talks in February. (Post-Varanasi, govt on hunt for 31 ‘wanted’ – The Times of India).

Small numbers …big problem

31 terrorists is India’s problem. The answer to these 31 operatives is dedicated teams for each terrorist.  Teams drawn from the 10 affected states, with 2 specialists from each state, dedicated to the  task of booking these 31 terrorists. 620 in all. 30 support staff. 6 in information technology; 12 in accounts & admin another twelve in documentation and secretarial section. Another 50 experts in language, cipher, psychology, intelligence, politics and culture can support this group. 700 people in all. To hunt down these 31.

Replacing these 31 operatives will be tough for any organization.

India must 'loose' 2000 DAT Teams (Dedicated Anti-Terrorist Teams) on the 2000 terrorists and 42 terrorist training camps. Table Source - 2ndlook.

India must 'loose' 2000 DAT Teams (Dedicated Anti-Terrorist Teams) on the 2000 terrorists and 42 terrorist training camps. Table Source - 2ndlook.

 

Let’s do the numbers

Indian police has a superb network of ‘humint.’ But, they need more than that – for neutralizing terror.

There are finally less than 1000 SIMI + HuJI activists who could be future terrorists. There are a similar 1000 Kashmiri terrorists. What India needs to do, is to set up a national database on these 2000 suspects – allot (say) teams of 5 policemen to these 1000 suspects.

Monitoring the activities of the 2000 suspects cannot be a national pastime. With neural networks and similar ‘intelligent’ systems, India police should be able to improve their ‘intelligence.’

2ndlook plan for terrorism

2ndlook has been working on a plan to tackle terrorism for 30 months now – resting on an intel-based theme. Not on more – computers, policemen, organizations.

The first output in this plan was the answer to counterfeit currency problem. 2ndlook analyzed this problem (in September 2008) down to a handful of Western companies, their Governments and proprietors who supply Pakistan with the paraphernalia to make fake currency notes. India needs to tackle these 12 companies and about 4 Governments.

The second stage in this plan was 50 days before 26/11 Mumbai attackson October 3rd 2008. Specialist teams to tackle identified, confirmed, proven terrorist candidates – DAT Teams (Dedicated Anti-Terrorist Teams). Instead of Western-style Draconian laws, which depend on mass jails, kills, hanging, State Terrorism, torture, India must depend on a targetted alternative.

Cartoon by Kirtish Bhatt; courtesy - http://bamulahija.wordpress.com

Cartoon by Kirtish Bhatt; courtesy - http://bamulahija.wordpress.com

For numbers will set you free

After 26/11, came a bigger 2ndlook anti-terrorism plan. Without demonizing Pakistan, or Pakistanis. Further development of better data came in December 2009, when specific numbers were revealed by Army Chief Deepak Kapoor. 42 terrorist camps is what the Indian intelligence agencies had estimated. Instead of putting a full army on alert, is it not possible to lob grenades into these 42 army camps every month for six months. With such sustained attacks comings in, how long will this structure-of-terrorism hold up.

Indian Government has taken action on some of these proposed points. The FCN issue was taken up with the necessary Euro-zone countries. India also decided to make its own security paper, instead of depending on unreliable-and-unethical European companies.

The IPI-TAPI Story

December 31, 2010 3 comments

Soon after 26/11, before David Headley-Tahawwur Rana revealation, a 2ndlook reader indicated US complicity in Mumbai attacks.

A Pakistani Cartoon.

A Pakistani Cartoon.

The Pakistani jihad in Kashmir

For many years India has been negotiating with Iran and Pakistan for a gas pipeline through Pakistan for conveying Iran gas – usually referred to as IPI gas pipeline – $7.4 billion (Rs. 33,374 crore) Iran-Pakistan-India 2,300km gas pipeline project. Iran and Pakistan threatened to go ahead with China instead. Seems like an empty threat.

Soon after 26/11, a reader of the 2ndlook pointed out that biggest beneficiaries of 26/11 was possibly China and the West. So would be the Central Asian oil producers. After 26/11, the IPI (Iran-Pakistan-India) gas pipeline  was a dead duck. He speculated that the TAPI (Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India), a 1,044-mile pipeline, would be a clear winner. It seemed so outlandish at that time – but it has actually happened. By the way, India attended the first TAPI summit held at Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, in April 2008.

Some interesting parallels

The point man for the sponsors of the Mumbai 26/11 attack was David Coleman Headley – a CIA agent – the brains behind the 26/11 attack. After 26/11, the Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) oil/gas pipeline was in jeopardy. Even before that as India and the USA were readying the world for a nuclear deal, the last meeting on the IPI pipeline between Iran, Pakistan and India happened in July 2007.

Instead, the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India Pipeline (TAPI) is being pushed by the Americans. Now all this would have been unremarkable – except that a 2ndlook reader predicted this turn of events 2 year ago.For many years India has been negotiating with Iran and Pakistan for a gas pipeline through Pakistan for conveying Iran gas – usually referred to as IPI gas pipeline. Who wins. Many think it is China.

Are we just getting some bedtime stories?

Are we just getting some bedtime stories?

With India fixated on Pakistan how much does our security apparatus think of the West being the conspirators behind this attack? Two years after the 26/11 attack, this rather curious post appeared in Times of India.


The truth behind sting operations

November 2, 2010 3 comments
Media-and-politician nexus to keep the people from understanding issues by throwing an occassional victim in front of a baying crowd. (Cartoon courtesy - indiadaily.org.). Click for larger image.

Media-and-politician nexus to keep the people from understanding issues by throwing an occassional victim in front of a baying crowd. (Cartoon courtesy - indiadaily.org.). Click for larger image.

farce is not the only thing that fascinates Bahal. He’s done a set of about 60 sting operations for various television channels, the best known among them being Operation West End that shows politicians taking a bribe from undercover reporters for defence contracts. “A lot of colleagues are a little shocked by sting operations. They feel this somehow violates the tenets of journalism. But what we’re doing now, the Western media did 60 or more years ago. There is a wealth of case-law on this: that giving money is not entrapment if there is prior intimation that the person is ready to take money,” he says.

In the cash-for query scam, that was broken by him (where reporters did a sting operation by recording MPs who accepted money for asking questions in Parliament), he says he did not single out MPs from any pre-decided set of political groups. “We were asked to depose before the Rajya Sabha committee. (Former RBI Governor) Bimal Jalan asked us how we chose the MPs we recorded. I had to tell him: we didn’t choose them. They were suggested to us by middlemen (‘dalal’ is the word he used) who acted as the go-between. It was all very organised, and that suggests what a huge business it was. We didn’t go to them. They came to us”. (read more via Under the covers).

Media is itself a scam

The recent CWG ‘scams’ is another scam – where media has itself been partisan. Kalmadi has been made a scape goat – even though he had less 3% (less than Rs.1800 crores) of the purported Rs.70,000 crores budget for CWG. Yet the media made out a huge song and dance about Suresh Kalmadi. We know who the media was gunning for. Who exactly was the media protecting?

It is the ‘Western’ style of empty journalism which makes me twitch.

How much can you blame a player - after a rich sting-journalist waves huge amounts of money in front of a poor Pakistani cricketer. (Cartoon by  by Satish Acharya.).

How much can you blame a player - after a rich sting-journalist waves huge amounts of money in front of a poor Pakistani cricketer. (Cartoon by by Satish Acharya.).

GFFIM

And in all this The Protector of the Indian interests, the Great, Fearless, Free Indian Media, (GFFIM) goes along. Ambles along. For the last six years, GGFFIM (and many others, too) ignored the CWG issues – till it was too late to do anything. They have raised CWG issues 60 days before the games. What  earthly benefit will this give us?

Is the media not being mercenary and opportunistic? Trying to encash on readers’ anxieties and insecurities? What was Indian media doing for the last few years! Pretty much what Organizing Committee-CWG was doing. Taking the short and easy way to ‘achieve’ their objectives! Dubious and shady objectives. After this kind of media circus, pocketing a few crores seems so harmless – if not some fun! I would even say …

After putting up a good show, Kalmadi & OC Team seem less guilty to me.

At least, lesser than Indian media?

Rahul Gandhi on terrorism

September 21, 2010 16 comments
Self defence is an idea whose time has come. Ideas matter. Prejudices dont! (Cartoonist - Lisa Benson; Cartoon Courtesy - cartoonistgroup.com.).
Self defence is an idea whose time has come. Ideas matter. Prejudices dont! (Cartoonist – Lisa Benson; Cartoon Courtesy – cartoonistgroup.com.).

Congress leader Rahul Gandhi on Tuesday had a surprise suggestion of empowering villagers to fight terrorism.

“I am confident that this country can take on terrorism. Defeating it is no problem. If we empower those people in villages, we can sit back, relax and we will destroy terrorism in 15 minutes,” Gandhi told a press conference here. (via Empower villagers and defeat terrorism in 15 minutes: Rahul).

Are we making terrorism into a slogan

Twitter, Facebook, private emails are all buzzing about the latest statement by Rahul Gandhi on terrorism. Mostly critical. With bits like ‘we can sit back, relax’, Rahul partly deserves ridicule. But the core of his statement is a rare piece of sense.

Strangely, when Rahul Gandhi does make his rare sensible statement, unthinking reaction is to reject. Terrorism is a case where a ‘disarmed’ population has been made dependent  on the State for defence at even the local level. Would the attackers of Mumbai’s Taj Hotel have dared if they had known that many of the people were armed and liable to fire back?

To all Rahul baiters

This is one smart thing he has said. What if it his first good idea! In fact the idea is so good that no government would dare to do such a thing! Including Rahul Gandhi himself, if he were to come the Prime Minister tomorrow.

Better governance they told us …

September 11, 2010 Leave a comment

The 100-year Western campaign to keep the Islamic world unstable. Islamic despots and Kashmir are a part of that.

The Islāmic Bloc has allowed itself to be reduced to nothing by the West in the last 100 years. ( ©Copyright 2008 Jimmy Margulies - All Rights Reserved. cartoon courtesy - politicalcartoons.com). Click for larger image.

The Islāmic Bloc has allowed itself to be reduced to nothing by the West in the last 100 years. ( ©Copyright 2008 Jimmy Margulies - All Rights Reserved. cartoon courtesy - politicalcartoons.com). Click for larger image.

Just as Europe turns upon the dismemberment of Turkey, so the Eastern question in Asia turns upon the continued solidarity of Hindustan” By George Nathaniel Curzon Curzon (Marquis of) in Problems of the Far East: Japan–Korea–China; published in 1894.

20 years before World War-I

Some 70 years ago, we were told that Jinnah’s objective also, was India’s freedom. Much like other Indian freedom fighters.

The template of using Jinnah to split India was implemented by Britain some 30 years  earlier, after WWI to break up the Ottoman Empire. The dismemberment of Turkey studied in Britain for at least a 20 years before WWI.

To understand this template, let us go back to post-WWI Middle East. Many Middle-East despots, then potentates, were put in positions of power after WWI by Western powers. These despots, who have run the Middle-East into the ground, earlier made tall claims about ‘progress’. All the while, condemning the ‘regressive’ Ottomans.

The regressive Islam that we see today is a joint-creation of the Christian-West and these Islamic-despots. Now, we all know what happened after these Islamic ‘freedom-fighters’ of the Middle East were installed by their Western masters.

Better governance, they told us then.

The Cats who went to the monkey for justice. A Jataka tale. Old Indian hesitation to involve third party justice.

The Cats who went to the monkey for justice. A Jataka tale. Old Indian hesitation to involve third party justice.

What will it be this time …

So, there is this little matter of a rather, big credibility-yawn.  Between reality and the azaadi-struggle claims of these ‘freedom-fighters’ in Kashmir also. Let these ‘freedom-fighters’ walk-the-plank-of-freedom.

Let them show their:-

  • Inclusion (have they taken up a single Kashmiri Pandit issue)
  • Ability to listen and govern (have they won any election)

These conflict-zones are Western creations – and so are these jihadis, terrorists.

As are these Islamic despots.

Honest arbiters, I don’t believe in

And, by the way, before I go forward, who offers to arbiter these conflicts? To whom do these despots and these ‘freedom fighters’ run to, to become honest ‘brokers’? Who they approach, address and talk to, gives the game away.

These jihadis using Pakistan as a go-between, approach the West to succeed in their  power grab. Jinnah, let us remember, could not get support from Indians – Muslims or otherwise.

Just as British negotiations with Congress gave Congress legitimacy, so also with Jinnah. Are we forgetting that, the JKLF leaders in the 1970’s and 80s were all holed up in London, for decades. Now, we know London is not cheap. How, who, where, with what motive, funded them for decades in London? Mirpuri-PoK freedom-loving, care-free people of Kashmir, they tell. Go tell that to the birds. JKLF was run out of London.

Much like how elections in Maldives was run out of Britain and London.

It is not Kismat, Najib-bhai! It is design. The Islamic Bloc has allowed itself to become irrelevant in this world. (By Peray, Thailand   -  10/12/2005 12.00:00 AM; cartoon courtesy -   politicalcartoons.com). Click for larger image.

It is not Kismat, Najib-bhai! It is design. The Islamic Bloc has allowed itself to become irrelevant in this world. (By Peray, Thailand - 10/12/2005 12.00:00 AM; cartoon courtesy - politicalcartoons.com). Click for larger image.

Najib Mubarki tries inducing guilt

Najib Mubarki on Kashmir is an interesting idea! Though finally it is a wet fuse.

the larger meaning of the slogan of “Azadi“ might be some form of secular Kashmiri nationalism, the slogan of “Allah o Akbar” (God is Great) also attends it. It is, in essence, while a slogan of defiance, also a culturally determined one.

Of course there are other slogans too. Or have been. Which would suggest a decidedly Islamist vision of what Kashmiri society should look like. But beyond even the empirically evident gap between slogans and immediately achievable political reality, quite often such slogans were echoed without any real political subscription.

But beyond the level of sloganeering in the streets, there is the fact of centuries of Kashmiri cultural history. One that is unique in the subcontinent. A history and lived life that tempers and inflects even those who would ordinarily be labelled hardliners.

Creating an Islamic State – The pattern

Have we not heard this logic before, Najib-bhai? This was peddled to us before. And some 160 million Muslims have been cast into the dysfunctional ‘nation’ called Pakistan. Remember Jinnah and his ‘secularist’ credentials? These potentates-to-despots, like Jinnah, are Western creations and installations.

What more, I am sure Najib-bhai knows.

Strangely, in Najib-bhai’s narrative, there are no suggestions for Muslims leadership – ever, anywhere. In this and his other posts. The burden of action, implementation is always others. Muslim leadership is always the innocent bystanders in Najib-bhai’s narrative.

Reading Najib Mubarki, I am reminded of a childhood story of such ‘honest’ arbiters. Maybe, Najibbhai too should also read such ‘Hindu’ stories.

Before you come to us, with your talks.

Talk is cheap. Remember Blood Never Forgets! (Cartoon by   By Peray, Thailand   -  10/30/2005 12.00:00 AM, courtesy - politicalcartoons.com) Click for larger image.

Talk is cheap. Remember Blood Never Forgets! (Cartoon by By Peray, Thailand - 10/30/2005 12.00:00 AM, courtesy - politicalcartoons.com) Click for larger image.

Saladin said …

Talk, as you know Najib-bhai, is cheap. Expensive, when you are paying for cheap talk, with spilled blood.

And that is what, we Indians in Kashmir are doing. It was a wise Islamic ruler who cautioned, “Blood never sleeps!”

We are paying with spilled blood, for cheap jihadi talk.

Take your talk, someplace else.


Related posts by 2ndlook

The idea of Pakistan!

Punjab govt goes after Hindu mythology cartoons

Pakistan and Kashmir – Regaining the narrative!

Kashmir – Foggy Indian Notions

We are the problem – and the West is trying is to help us!

The ‘idea’ of Pakistan-II

Sadanand Dhume botches up history

Robert D. Kaplan gives gyaan on India in NYTimes.com

Pakistan – a nation in fidayeen mode?

What should India’s counter terrorism plan look like …

Mumbai Massacre – The real blame and real culprits

India’s Pakistan Fixation

Terrorists And Counterfeit Indian Currency

For More Than 60 Years …

Indo Pak Relations – What Will It Take

India Lowers Guard

New Empire Builders – Neo-Cons Sneaking In

The Carving Of The Middle East

British Empire & The Anglo Saxon Bloc

Behind The Web Of Terror

“Just as Europe turns upon the dismemberment of Turkey, so the Eastern question in Asia turns upon the continued solidarity of Hindustan” By George Nathaniel Curzon Curzon (Marquis of) in Problems of the Far East: Japan–Korea–China; published in 1894.

Ek tha gul … Ek thi bul-bul … (From Jab jab phool khile)

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